Efficiency improvement of perovskite solar cell
The light from the Sun is a non-vanishing renewable source of energy which is free from environmental pollution and noise. It can easily compensate the energy drawn from the non-renewable sources of energy such as fossil fuels and petroleum deposits inside the earth. The fabrication of solar cells has passed through a large number of improvement steps from one generation to another. Silicon based solar cells were the first generation solar cells grown on Si wafers, mainly single crystals. Further development to thin films, dye sensitized solar cells and organic solar cells enhanced the cell efficiency. The development is basically hindered by the cost and efficiency. In order to choose the right solar cell for a specific geographic location, we are required to understand fundamental mechanisms and functions of several solar technologies that are widely studied. Organic–inorganic halide perovskites have a significant impact on photovoltaic devices and the solar-to-power conversion efficiency is considerably high (~20.1%) compared to the existing organic solar cells and dye sensitized solar cells. For the past three years, there has been tremendous improvement in photo-voltaic efficiency of perovskites, i.e. ~9.7% in 2012 to 20.1% in 2015. Meanwhile, several fabrication approaches, inorganic and organic hole transport materials and device concepts have been developed for high-performing devices. We improved the efficiency of the perovskite solar cells to 22.1% by using a new perovskite structured material (methyl ammonium lead iodide).